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Properties and protection of oxygen, nitrogen and argon in industrial gases Jan 03, 2018

Common industrial gases include oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide,etc. Today we will introduce three of them which is oxygen, nitrogen and argon. We will introduce the nature, harm and protection of the three gases.


The main use of oxygen in the iron and steel industry is to strengthen the smelting process, which has become an important way for the rapid development of metallurgical industry.

The nature of oxygen: Oxygen is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. The molecular weight is 31.998. Under the standard condition, the density is 1.4289kg/m3, the specific gravity of gas is 1.105 (air is 1), the melting point is -218.4℃, the boiling point is -182.97℃, the critical temperature is -118.4℃, and the critical pressure is 5.97MPa. Liquid oxygen (specific gravity is 1.13) is light blue, transparent and easy to flow.

The harm and protection of oxygen: Oxygen is a necessity for human survival, but human inhalation of pure oxygen will get oxygen rich disease. Liquid oxygen is noncombustible liquefied gas, but is very combustion-supporting. In case of liquid oxygen spills and encounters combustible, may cause burning and explosion. Fire extinguishing agents are foggy water and carbon dioxide. The contact of the liquid oxygen to the skin will cause severe frostbite and have a serious damage to the cell tissue.


Nitrogen is the main raw material of the nitrogen fertilizer industry. Nitrogen in metallurgical industry is mainly used as protective gas, such as steel rolling, galvanizing, chroming, heat treatment, continuous casting and so on. In addition, the injection of nitrogen to the blast furnace can improve the quality of the iron. Nitrogen is widely used in the electronics industry, the chemical industry, the petroleum industry and the glass industry.

The nature of nitrogen gas: nitrogen is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. The molecular weight is 28.013. Under the standard condition, the density is 1.02506kg/m3, the specific gravity of the gas is 0.9674 (air is 1), the melting point is -210.5℃, the boiling point is -195.8℃, the critical temperature is -147.05℃, and the critical pressure is 3.39MPa. The liquid nitrogen is colorless, transparent and easy to flow, specific gravity is 0.804 (water is 1).

The harm and protection of nitrogen: nitrogen is nontoxic and tasteless, but it is a kind of gas that can suffocate people or animals. People in the environment where nitrogen content is higher than 82% for a long time will asphyxiation of death in a few minutes with severe hypoxia. Once inhaled nitrogen, the person should be moved to the fresh air. If breathing has stopped, the person should be mouth to mouth artificial respiration; if breathing is difficult, the person should be timely oxygen, and ask the doctor to dispose of it.


The nature and use of argon: argon is an inert gas. People use the inertness of argon as a protective gas to avoid oxidation in metal welding and cutting operation. The chemical inertness of argon is also used for the smelting of special metals. The blowing and protection of argon are also an important way to improve the quality of steel.

Harm and protection: It is the same as nitrogen, argon can cause rapid asphyxiation which belongs to asphyxiating gas. When stored and used, sufficient ventilation should be made. Once the existing asphyxia symptoms were found, the initial treatment method was the same as nitrogen treatment.